Institut für Geographie und Geoökologie (IFGG)

Prof. Dr. Florian Wittmann

  • Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT)

    Institut für Geographie und Geoökologie
    Abteilung Aueninstitut
    D-76437 Rastatt

Florian Wittmann

Professor für Auenökologie und Leiter des WWF-Auen-Institutes


  • Auenökologie
  • Pflanzengeographie
  • Biomasse/Primärproduktion


2016- Professor for Floodplain Ecology and Head of the Institute for Floodplain Ecology at the Dep. of Gegraphy and Geoecology, Karlsruhe-Institute of Technology – KIT, Germany.
2007-2016 Employee of the Biogeochemistry Dep. of the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz, Germany. Administration of the bilateral INPA/Max-Planck Project, in cooperation with the Research Group “Ecology, Monitoring and Sustainable Management of Amazonian Wetlands” (MAUA), Manaus, Brazil.
2006-2010 Lecturer Qualification (Habilitation) at the Department of Chemistry, Biology, and Geosciences of the University of Bayreuth, Germany: Phytogeography, use and management options of Amazonian floodplain forests (University of Bayreuth, 2010).
2005-2009 Scientific head of the UNESCO Demonstration Site in Ecohydrology (UNESCO International Ecohydrology Program-IHP VII): Sustainable timber production and management of Central Amazonian white-water floodplains
2002-2007 Post-doctorate grant holder (2002-2004) and employee (2004-2007) of the Max Planck Institute for Limnology, Plön, Germany. Research priorities: Sustainable Use and Management of Amazonian wetlands, Forest Ecology, Tree Ecophysiology, Stress Ecology, Biomass and Primary Production, Remote Sensing.
1998-2001 Ph.D.-Thesis with fieldwork in the Brazilian Amazonian (two years): Tree species distribution and forest structure of Amazonian white-water floodplain forests by remote sensing techniques (University of Mannheim, 2001, in cooperation with the Max Planck Institute for Limnology, Plön, Germany)
1997-1999 Free-lancer on soil- and water-pollutants in industrial sites at Clayton GbR Schadstoffanalytik, Ludwigshafen, Germany
1996-1997 Diploma-Thesis: Phenology of six tree species from Central Amazonian floodplains (University of Mannheim, 1997)
1994/1995 Student internships at the Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit-GTZ, Project Patecore, Dedougou - Burkina Faso, and National Institute for Amazon Research – INPA, Manaus - Brazil
1992-1997 Study of Geography, Geology and Botany at the Universities of Mannheim and Heidelberg, degree in Physical Geography, University of Mannheim, Germany


  • Fluss- und Auenökologie (VL)
  • Geoökologie neotropischer Feuchtgebiete (VL)
  • Ressourcenschutz (VL)
  • Ökosystemmanagement (Seminar)
  • Kartierpraktika


Fontes, C. G.; Fine, P. V. A.; Wittmann, F.; Bittencourt, P. R. L.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Higuchi, N.; Chambers, J. Q.; Dawson, T. E. (2020). Convergent evolution of tree hydraulic traits in Amazonian habitats: implications for community assemblage and vulnerability to drought. The new phytologist. doi:10.1111/nph.16675
Latrubesse, E. M.; d’Horta, F. M.; Ribas, C. C.; Wittmann, F.; Zuanon, J.; Park, E.; Dunne, T.; Arima, E. Y.; Baker, P. A. (2020). Vulnerability of the biota in riverine and seasonally flooded habitats to damming of Amazonian rivers [in press]. Aquatic conservation. doi:10.1002/aqc.3424VolltextVolltext der Publikation als PDF-Dokument
Quaresma, A. C.; Feitosa, Y. O.; Wittmann, F.; Schöngart, J.; Demarchi, L. O.; Piedade, M. T. F. (2020). Does the size of the trees determine the richness and distribution of vascular epiphytes in Amazonian floodplain forests?. Oecologia Australis, 24 (02), 334–346. doi:10.4257/oeco.2020.2402.08
Rocha, M. da; Feitosa, Y. O.; Wittmann, F.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Resende, A. F. de; Assis, R. L. de. (2020). River damming affects seedling communities of a floodplain forest in the Central Amazon. Acta botanica Brasilica, 34 (1), 192–203. doi:10.1590/0102-33062019abb0263VolltextVolltext der Publikation als PDF-Dokument
Steege, H. ter; Prado, P. I.; Lima, R. A. F. de; Pos, E.; de Souza Coelho, L.; de Andrade Lima Filho, D.; Salomão, R. P.; Amaral, I. L.; de Almeida Matos, F. D.; Wittmann, F.; u. a. (2020). Biased-corrected richness estimates for the Amazonian tree flora. Scientific reports, 10 (1), Art.-Nr.: 10130. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-66686-3VolltextVolltext der Publikation als PDF-Dokument
Assis, R. L. de; Wittmann, F.; Bredin, Y. K.; Schöngart, J.; Nobre Quesada, C. A.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Haugaasen, T. (2019). Above-ground woody biomass distribution in Amazonian floodplain forests: Effects of hydroperiod and substrate properties. Forest ecology and management, 432, 365–375. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2018.09.031
Grasel, D.; Fearnside, P. M.; Vitule, J. R. S.; Bozelli, R. L.; Mormul, R. P.; Rodrigues, R. R.; Wittmann, F.; Agostinho, A. A.; Jarenkow, J. A. (2019). Brazilian wetlands on the brink. Biodiversity and conservation, 28 (1), 255–257. doi:10.1007/s10531-018-1666-z
Latrubesse, E. M.; Arima, E.; Ferreira, M. E.; Nogueira, S. H.; Wittmann, F.; Dias, M. S.; Dagosta, F. C. P.; Bayer, M. (2019). Fostering water resource governance and conservation in the Brazilian Cerrado biome. Conservation science and practice, 1 (9), Article: e77. doi:10.1111/csp2.77VolltextVolltext der Publikation als PDF-Dokument
Lobo, G. de S.; Wittmann, F.; Piedade, M. T. F. (2019). Response of black-water floodplain (igapó) forests to flood pulse regulation in a dammed Amazonian river. Forest ecology and management, 434, 110–118. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2018.12.001
Rocha, M. da; Assis, R. L. de; Piedade, M. T. F.; Feitosa, Y. O.; Householder, J. E.; Lobo, G. D. S.; Demarchi, L. O.; Albuquerque, B. W.; Quaresma, A. C.; Wittmann, F.; u. a. (2019). Thirty years after Balbina Dam: Diversity and floristic composition of the downstream floodplain forest, Central Amazon, Brazil. Ecohydrology, 12 (8), Article No.e2144. doi:10.1002/eco.2144
ter Steege, H.; Henkel, T. W.; Helal, N.; Marimon, B. S.; Marimon-Junior, B. H.; Huth, A.; Groeneveld, J.; Sabatier, D.; Coelho, L. de S.; Wittmann, F.; u. a. (2019). Rarity of monodominance in hyperdiverse Amazonian forests. Scientific reports, 9 (1), Art. Nr.: 13822. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-50323-9VolltextVolltext der Publikation als PDF-Dokument
Arias, M. E.; Wittmann, F.; Parolin, P.; Murray-Hudson, M.; Cochrane, T. A. (2018). Interactions between flooding and upland disturbance drives species diversity in large river floodplains. Hydrobiologia, 814 (1), 5–17. doi:10.1007/s10750-016-2664-3
Carim, M. de J. V.; Wittmann, F.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Guimarães, J. R. da S.; Tostes, L. C. L. (2018). Estimativa de biomassa lenhosa acima do solo ao longo do gradiente inundável de várzea e igapó na Amazônia oriental, Estado do Amapá. Biota Amazônia, 8, 29–33.
Gomes, V. H. F.; Ijff, S. D.; Raes, N.; Amaral, I. L.; Salomão, R. P.; Coelho, L. D. S.; Matos, F. D. D. A.; Castilho, C. V.; Filho, D. D. A. L.; Wittmann, F.; u. a. (2018). Species Distribution Modelling : Contrasting presence-only models with plot abundance data. Scientific reports, 8 (1), Art.Nr. 1003. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-18927-1VolltextVolltext der Publikation als PDF-Dokument
Junk, W. J.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Cunha, C. N. da; Wittmann, F.; Schöngart, J. (2018). Macrohabitat studies in large Brazilian floodplains to support sustainable development in the face of climate change. International journal of ecohydrology & hydrobiology, 18 (4), 334–344. doi:10.1016/j.ecohyd.2018.11.007
Quaresma, A. C.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Wittmann, F.; ter Steege, H. (2018). Species richness, composition, and spatial distribution of vascular epiphytes in Amazonian black-water floodplain forests. Biodiversity and conservation, 27 (8), 1981–2002. doi:10.1007/s10531-018-1520-3
Slik, J. W. F.; Franklin, J.; Arroyo-Rodríguez, V.; Field, R.; Aguilar, S.; Aguirre, N.; Ahumada, J.; Aiba, S.-I.; Alves, L. F.; Wittmann, F.; u. a. (2018). Phylogenetic classification of the world’s tropical forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115 (8), 1837–1842. doi:10.1073/pnas.1714977115VolltextVolltext der Publikation als PDF-Dokument
Assahira, C.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Trumbore, S. E.; Wittmann, F.; Cintra, B. B. L.; Batista, E. S.; Resende, A. F. de; Schöngart, J. (2017). Tree mortality of a flood-adapted species in response of hydrographic changes caused by an Amazonian river dam. Forest ecology and management, 396, 113–123. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2017.04.016
Carim, M. de J. V.; Wittmann, F. K.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Guimarães, J. R. da S.; Tostes, L. de C. L. (2017). Composition, diversity, and structure of tidal “Várzea” and “Igapó” floodplain forests in eastern Amazonia, Brazil. Brazilian journal of botany, 40 (1), 115–124. doi:10.1007/s40415-016-0315-6
Gumbricht, T.; Roman-Cuesta, R. M.; Verchot, L.; Herold, M.; Wittmann, F.; Householder, E.; Herold, N.; Murdiyarso, D. (2017). An expert system model for mapping tropical wetlands and peatlands reveals South America as the largest contributor. Global change biology, 23 (9), 3581–3599. doi:10.1111/gcb.13689
Householder, E.; Janovec, J.; Tobler, M. W.; Wittmann, F. (2017). A Diversity of Biogeographies in an Extreme Amazonian Wetland Habitat. Forest Structure, Function and Dynamics in Western Amazonia. Ed.: R.W. Myster, 145–157, Wiley-Blackwell. doi:10.1002/9781119090670.ch7
Latrubesse, E. M.; Arima, E. Y.; Dunne, T.; Park, E.; Baker, V. R.; D’Horta, F. M.; Wight, C.; Wittmann, F.; Zuanon, J.; Baker, P. A.; u. a. (2017). Damming the rivers of the Amazon basin. Nature <London>, 546 (7658), 363–369. doi:10.1038/nature22333
Levis, C.; Costa, F. R. C.; Bongers, F.; Peña-Claros, M.; Clement, C. R.; Junqueira, A. B.; Neves, E. G.; Tamanaha, E. K.; Figueiredo, F. O. G.; Wittmann, F.; u. a. (2017). Persistent effects of pre-Columbian plant domestication on Amazonian forest composition. Science, 355 (Art.-Nr.: 6328), 925–931. doi:10.1126/science.aal0157
Lopes, A.; Wittmann, F.; Schöngart, J.; Householder, J. E.; Piedade, M. T. F. (2017). Modeling of regional- and local-scale distribution of the genus Montrichardia Crueg. (Araceae). Hydrobiologia, 789 (1), 45–57. doi:10.1007/s10750-016-2721-y
Schöngart, J.; Wittmann, F.; Junk, W. J.; Piedade, M. T. F. (2017). Vulnerability of Amazonian floodplains to wildfires differs according to their typologies impeding generalizations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114 (41), E8550–E8551. doi:10.1073/pnas.1713734114
Wittmann, F.; Marques, M. C. M.; Damasceno Júnior, G.; Budke, J. C.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Wittmann, A. de O.; Montero, J. C.; Assis, R. L. de; Targhetta, N.; Parolin, P.; u. a. (2017). The Brazilian freshwater wetscape: Changes in tree community diversity and composition on climatic and geographic gradients. PLoS one, 12 (4), Art. Nr.: e0175003. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0175003VolltextVolltext der Publikation als PDF-Dokument
Wittmann, F.; Householder, E. (2017). Why Rivers Make the Difference: A Review on the Phytogeography of Forested Floodplains in the Amazon Basin. Forest Structure, Function and Dynamics in Western Amazonia. Ed.: R.W. Myster, 125–144, Wiley-Blackwell. doi:10.1002/9781119090670.ch6
Guevara, J. E.; Damasco, G.; Baraloto, C.; Fine, P. V. A.; Peñuela, M. C.; Castilho, C.; Vincentini, A.; Cárdenas, D.; Wittmann, F.; Targhetta, N.; u. a. (2016). Low Phylogenetic Beta Diversity and Geographic Neo-endemism in Amazonian White-sand Forests. Biotropica, 48 (1), 34–46. doi:10.1111/btp.12298
Andreae, M. O.; Acevedo, O. C.; Araùjo, A.; Artaxo, P.; Barbosa, C. G. G.; Barbosa, H. M. J.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Chi, X.; Wittmann, F.; u. a. (2015). The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO): overview of pilot measurements on ecosystem ecology, meteorology, trace gases, and aerosols. Atmospheric chemistry and physics, 15 (18), 10723–10776. doi:10.5194/acp-15-10723-2015
Carim, M. de J. V.; Guimarães, J. R. da S.; Tostes, L. D. C. L.; Takiyama, L. R.; Wittmann, F. (2015). Composition, structure and floristic diversity in dense rain forest in the Eastern Amazon, Amapá, Brazil. Acta scientiarum / Biological sciences, 37 (4), 419–426. doi:10.4025/actascibiolsci.v37i4.27536VolltextVolltext der Publikation als PDF-Dokument
Householder, J. E.; Wittmann, F.; Tobler, M. W.; Janovec, J. P. (2015). Montane bias in lowland Amazonian peatlands: Plant assembly on heterogeneous landscapes and potential significance to palynological inference. Palaeogeography, palaeoclimatology, palaeoecology, 423, 138–148. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2015.01.029
Junk, W. J.; Wittmann, F.; Schöngart, J.; Piedade, M. T. F. (2015). A classification of the major habitats of Amazonian black-water river floodplains and a comparison with their white-water counterparts. Wetlands ecology and management, 23 (4), 677–693. doi:10.1007/s11273-015-9412-8
Luize, B. G.; Silva, T. S. F.; Wittmann, F.; Assis, R. L.; Venticinque, E. M. (2015). Effects of the Flooding Gradient on Tree Community Diversity in Várzea Forests of the Purus River, Central Amazon, Brazil. Biotropica, 47 (2), 137–142. doi:10.1111/btp.12203
Slik, J. W. F.; Arroyo-Rodríguez, V.; Aiba, S.-I.; Alvarez-Loayza, P.; Alves, L. F.; Ashton, P.; Balvanera, P.; Bastian, M. L.; Bellingham, P. J.; Wittmann, F.; u. a. (2015). An estimate of the number of tropical tree species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112 (24), 7472–7477. doi:10.1073/pnas.1423147112
ter Steege, H.; Pitman, N. C. A.; Killeen, T. J.; Laurance, W. F.; Peres, C. A.; Guevara, J. E.; Salomão, R. P.; Castilho, C. V.; Amaral, I. L.; Wittmann, F.; u. a. (2015). Estimating the global conservation status of more than 15,000 Amazonian tree species. Science advances, 1 (10), Article no: 1500936. doi:10.1126/sciadv.1500936VolltextVolltext der Publikation als PDF-Dokument
Assis, R. L.; Haugaasen, T.; Schöngart, J.; Montero, J. C.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Wittmann, F. (2014). Patterns of tree diversity and composition in Amazonian floodplain paleo-várzea forest. Journal of vegetation science, 26 (2), 312–322. doi:10.1111/jvs.12229
Assis, R. L.; Wittmann, F.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Haugaasen, T. (2014). Effects of hydroperiod and substrate properties on tree alpha diversity and composition in Amazonian floodplain forests. Plant ecology, 216 (1), 41–54. doi:10.1007/s11258-014-0415-y
Junk, W. J.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Lourival, R.; Wittmann, F.; Kanadus, P.; Lacerda, L. D.; Bozelli, R. L.; Esteves, F. A.; Cunha, C. N. de; Maltchik, L.; u. a. (2014). Brazilian wetlands: their definition, delineation and classification for research, sustainable management and protection. Aquatic conservation, 24 (1), 5–22.
Lopes, A.; Wittmann, F.; Schöngart, J.; Piedade, M. T. F. (2014). Herbaceous aquatic plants in six igapó floodplains in Central Amazonia: generic composition and diversity. Geográfica acadêmica, 8 (1), 5–17.
Lucas, C. M.; Schöngart, J.; Sheikh, P.; Wittmann, F.; Piedade, M. T. F.; McGrath, D. G. (2014). Effects of land-use and hydroperiod on aboveground biomass and productivity of secondary Amazonian floodplain forests. Forest ecology and management, 319, 116–127. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2014.02.008
Montero, J. C.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Wittmann, F. (2014). Floristic variation across 600 km of black-water inundation forests (igapó) along the Brazilian Negro River. Hydrobiologia, 729 (1), 229–246. doi:10.1007/s10750-012-1381-9
Marinho, T. A. da S.; Lopes, A.; Assis, R. L. de; Ramos, S. L. F.; Gomes, L. R. P.; Wittmann, F.; Schöngart, J. (2013). Distribution and growth of Garcinia brasiliensis Mart. and Hevea spruceana (Benth.) Müll.Arg. in a seasonally flooded forest near the city of Manaus, Brazilian Amazon. Ciência florestal, 23 (1), 223–232. doi:10.5902/198050988456VolltextVolltext der Publikation als PDF-Dokument
Parolin, P.; Wittmann, F.; Ferreira, L. V. (2013). Fruit and seed dispersal in Amazonian floodplain trees: A review. Ecotropica, 19, 15–32.
Wittmann, F.; Steege, H. ter; Killeen, T. J.; Laurance, W. F.; Salomão, R. P.; Castilho, C. V.; Magnusson, W. E.; Phillips, O. L.; Molino, J.-F.; Sabatier, D.; u. a. (2013). Hyperdominance in the Amazonian tree flora. Science, 342 (6156), 325–334. doi:10.1126/science.1243092
Junk, W. J.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Schöngart, J.; Cohn-Haft, M.; Adeney, J. M.; Wittmann, F. (2011). A Classification of Major Naturally-Occurring Amazonian Lowland Wetlands. Wetlands, 31 (4), 623–640. doi:10.1007/s13157-011-0190-7
Parolin, P.; Lucas, C. M.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Wittmann, F. (2010). Drought responses of flood-tolerant trees in Amazonian floodplains. Annals of botany, 105 (1), 129–139. doi:10.1093/aob/mcp258
Piedade, M. T. F.; Junk, W. J.; D’Angelo, S. A.; Wittmann, F.; Schöngart, J.; Barbosa, K. M. N.; Lopes, A. (2010). Aquatic herbaceous plants of the Amazon floodplains: State of the art and research needed. Acta limnologica Brasiliensia, 22, 165–178. doi:10.4322/actalb.02202006
Silva Marinho, T. A. da; Piedade, M. T. F.; Wittmann, F. (2010). Distribution and population structure of four Central Amazonian high-várzea timber species. Wetlands ecology and management, 18 (6), 665–667. doi:10.1007/s11273-010-9186-y
Wittmann, F.; Schöngart, J.; Queiroz, H. L.; Wittman, A. de O.; Conserva, A. dos S.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Kesselmeier, J.; Junk, W. J. (2009). The Amazon Floodplain Demonstration Site: Sustainable timber production and management of Central Amazonian white-water floodplains. International journal of ecohydrology & hydrobiology, 9 (1), 41–54. doi:10.2478/v10104-009-0038-4
Wittmann, F.; Zorzi, B. T.; Tizianel, F. A. T.; Urquiza, M. V. S.; Faria, R. R.; Sousa, N. M.; Modena, E. S.; Gamarra, R. M.; Rosa, A. L. M. (2008). Tree species composition, structure, and aboveground wood biomass of a riparian forest of the lower Miranda River, Southern Pantanal, Brazil. Folia geobotanica, 43 (4), 397–411. doi:10.1007/s12224-008-9022-9
Schöngart, J.; Wittmann, F.; Worbes, M.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Krambeck, H.-J.; Junk, W. J. (2007). Management criteria for Ficus insipida Willd. (Moraceae) in Amazonian white-water floodplain forests defined by tree-ring analysis. Annals of forest science, 64 (6), 657–664. doi:10.1051/forest:2007044
Wittmann, A. de O.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Parolin, P.; Wittmann, F. (2007). Germination in four low-várzea tree species of central Amazonia. Aquatic botany, 86 (3), 197–203. doi:10.1016/j.aquabot.2006.10.001
Wittmann, A. O.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Wittmann, F.; Schöngart, J.; Parolin, P. (2007). Patterns of structure and seedling diversity along a successional gradient in Amazonian floodplain forests. Pesquisas, 58, 119–138.
Wittmann, F.; Schöngart, J.; Parolin, P.; Worbes, M.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Junk, W. J. (2006). Wood specific gravity of trees in Amazonian white-water forests in relation to flooding. IAWA journal, 27 (3), 255–268. doi:10.1163/22941932-90000153
Wittmann, F.; Schöngart, J.; Montero, J. C.; Motzer, T.; Junk, W. J.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Queiroz, H. L.; Worbes, M. (2006). Tree species composition and diversity gradients in white-water forests across the Amazon basin. Journal of biogeography, 33 (8), 1334–1347. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2006.01495.x|
Wittmann, F.; Junk, W. J.; Piedade, M. T. F. (2004). The várzea forests in Amazonia: Flooding and the highly dynamic geomorphology interact with natural forest succession. Forest ecology and management, 196 (2-3), 199–212.
Wittmann, F.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Schöngart, J.; Parolin, P. (2004). Amazonian várzea forests: adaptive strategies of trees as tools for forest management. Ecología aplicada, 3, 180–184.
Parolin, P.; Armbruester, N.; Wittmann, F.; Ferreira, L. V.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Junk, W. J. (2002). A review of tree phenology in Central Amazonian floodplains. Pesquisas, 52, 195–222.
Parolin, P.; Oliveira, A. C.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Wittmann, F.; Junk, W. J. (2002). Pioneer trees in Amazonian floodplains: Key-species form monospecific stands in different habitats. Folia geobotanica, 37 (2), 225–238. doi:10.1007/BF02804233